Skin diseases are one of the most common health problems that affect the quality of life. Diseases that progress with skin rashes, which are seen in attacks especially since childhood, may be the harbinger of some allergy-based health problems. One of the most common skin diseases today is atopic dermatitis.
What is Atopic Dermatitis?
Atopic dermatitis, It is a chronic skin disease that often starts in childhood and progresses with skin dryness, itching and redness in certain parts of the body. Atopic dermatitis, which is usually seen in people with an allergic structure; It has an autoimmune origin, which basically develops due to the reaction of the body’s immune system to its own body cells. Due to this feature, atopic dermatitis patients are more likely to develop allergic diseases such as asthma and hay fever in the future.
What Causes Atopic Dermatitis?
Today, the exact cause of the development of atopic dermatitis is not known. However, studies have been able to illuminate some mechanisms that are effective in the development of the disease. In this direction; It has been observed that allergic inflammatory reactions developing in skin tissues lead to findings such as dryness, itching and redness on the skin. Again, studies have revealed that due to these problems developing on the skin, the integrity of the skin is damaged and it creates a predisposition to skin infections.
At the same time, it is known that individuals who have relatives with autoimmune diseases such as eczema, allergies and asthma are more likely to develop atopic dermatitis. In this sense, the following conditions can trigger the development of atopic dermatitis:
- Taking a shower or bath with very hot water,
- Prolonged itching of the skin
- very hot or cold weather,
- dry air,
- Substances that can irritate the skin such as soap, disinfectant or detergent,
- Environmental irritants such as mud, sand, dust or smoke,
- Wool or synthetic clothing,
- physical or emotional stress
What Are the Symptoms of Atopic Dermatitis?
Atopic Dermatitis; It is manifested by red and itchy skin lesions that appear on certain parts of the body. While skin findings usually occur in attacks, recovery periods are observed in the skin between attacks. The distribution and severity of atopic dermatitis symptoms in the body may differ depending on age. The following symptoms can often be observed in people with atopic dermatitis:
- very dry skin
- redness and tenderness,
- Inflammatory discharge, pain, increased skin temperature due to secondary infections.
Skin findings show intensity in the scalp, cheeks, arms and legs during infancy. With aging, lesions can also occur on the elbows, knees, nape and around the eyes. As these lesions itch, the skin may harden and become darker in color. In adults, a rash may occur in attacks with the effect of environmental factors on the skin and widespread eczema may be observed.
How Is Atopic Dermatitis Diagnosed?
The diagnosis of atopic dermatitis is usually made based on the findings of the physical examination performed by the physician. If the physician deems it necessary, he may request some blood tests to rule out different allergic problems.
Skin patch test can be applied to determine the factors that may trigger an allergic reaction on the skin. In this test, various substances known to cause an allergic reaction in humans are applied to certain areas of the skin and it can be determined to which substances the person is allergic. It is extremely important for the person to avoid the allergens determined as a result of the test in daily life for the control of the disease.
What is done in the treatment of atopic dermatitis?
There is no definitive treatment for atopic dermatitis in the current clinical approach. The main aim of the treatment is to control the clinical symptoms, to eliminate the complaints and to increase the quality of life.
For this purpose, various lifestyle changes are recommended and medication is given to the patients. Reducing the itching complaint prevents the skin from undergoing repetitive physical traumas and protects against the development of possible skin infections.
For this purpose, creams containing corticosteroids can be prescribed to patients, and in severe cases, oral corticosteroid and antihistamine drugs can be prescribed. Antibiotic drugs can be added to the treatment to treat secondary infections.
In cases that do not respond to treatment, immunosuppressive drugs can be used. Moisturizing the skin frequently, especially immediately after taking a bath, consuming plenty of fluids, moisturizing the environment,